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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

单词effective 联想记忆:

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这一现象值得注意。巴西是个多种族国家,黑人占总人口比例位居世界第二,仅低于尼日利亚。在2010年的人口普查中,超过一半的巴西人认为自己是黑人或混血儿。
Why? Just add in the intensifying anger after the Supreme Court's decisions over same-sex marriage issues and gays, add in the growing anger over abortions, Obamacare, gun control, food stamps, the new voter suppression pushed by GOP governors, plus more threats by conservatives and the tea party to dig in their heels and fight to overturn everything and increase austerity too.
5. Lacking confidence in your career intuition

In the MBA ranking, LBS, Insead and Spain’s IE Business School are bunched together with only a few dollars between them. Insead has the top salary at $155,015.
But Michael DeFranco, chair of Baker & McKenzie’s M&A practice, hailed the Chinese group’s investment in developed economies.
James Bond Themes 3. "Skyfall" by Adele

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

你了解家里的木门吗?

"For IBM, although they regularly top the list of U.S. patentees by volume of patents each year, the Top 100 Global Innovators listing evaluates not just volume, but also success, globalization and impact," said Bob Stembridge, analyst with Thomson Reuters.
强化水、土壤污染防治。
I was asked by one CEO to hire the long-legged girl with the long dark hair even though she didn't have the right skills. Another time, I was instructed not to hire anyone with children because the company had too many people leaving for soccer games. That kind of thing happens all the time.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

项目长度:13至15个月
不论是她与最近崭露头角的说唱乐歌手卡布卡克合作的《Lipgloss》(《唇彩》),还是与凯伦·玛丽·奥斯特(M?)合作的《3AM(Pull Up)》(《凌晨3点(停下来)》),《1号天使》这张专辑的怪异节奏和摇滚舞曲感觉就像这位英国明星的流行音乐才华最纯粹的结晶。
China is now home to over 80,000 trade markets and total retail sales of consumer goods would reach 30 trillion yuan this year with consumption contributing to about 60 percent of total GDP growth, Gao said.

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 活跃的ETF市场将取决于基于收费的分销网络的发展。富达国际(Fidelity International)亚太区董事总经理陶博宏(Mark Talbot)表示,分销基础设施正抑制零售需求。
  • 2016年LED显示屏企业并购渐趋理性
  • ceremony
  • 瓦片浅灰 鳞次栉比 百年四合院拆违重生
  • 沪新房库存创历史新高 外环区域成“重灾区”
  • Qube会提醒你注意垃圾回收,在垃圾最后被倒出来的时候进行监控,并告诉你更换空气清新剂。但这些人们通常可以通过嗅觉和其他感觉器官来判断。现在有一个300美元的“优雅”不锈钢,会不断用讨人厌的移动警报提醒你。
    retreat

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 涉足餐饮、儿童教育等领域 家居卖场的跨界动作大, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

IPO预披露企业再添12家 成都富森美家居亮相

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

2013中国半导体照明产业数据发布

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • “狗屎。都在说谎,都是权宜之计,他们不过是想让自己好受些,我知道这些人都是胆小鬼,只要表面上看起来能凑合,对他们来说这就够了。”
    《大白鲨》的故事非常不现实,但它的原型是1916年由一条鲨鱼造成的一系列真实命案。在被称为“史无前例的系列鲨鱼袭击事件”中,2周内,泽西海岸边有4人被鲨鱼咬死。据报道,犯案的鲨鱼被捕后,消化道中还有尸骸。不过,权威科学家至今无法确定,是什么驱使这条鲨鱼袭击了这么多人。
  • 格里芬高中时代的样子与现今相差无几,原因是他离开高中才四年。我们能想象得出,暴力美学的格里芬在NBA里再锻炼上一两年年,他会变得更“怪兽”。
    卓越雇主排名:1
    Inventors Bryan Carpenter and Bland Hoke were inspired by their passion for the outdoors, and decided to come up with a creative way to bring their hammocks everywhere they go.
    If there are nine or 10 best picture nominees, it could grab a spot. Jordan Peele's screenplay looks certain to be recognized.
    “网络反腐大部分靠文字、照片、视频等,从这些途径‘揪’贪官,容易流于表面化。”

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 中共中央 国务院关于建立国土空间规划体系并监督实施的若干意见
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 水泥行业将整体退出河北平山县

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

被调查的34个城市间的差距就更大了。北京市平均年终奖超过1.58万元人民币,超过了年终奖最低的沈阳市的三倍。沈阳市是中国东北铁锈地带辽宁省的省会。
明星们的私家飞机刚停稳,“老爹身材”一词便在互联网上走红。男性微胖的身材成为潮流,荧幕上不少这样的例子。法新社(AFP)Deborah Cole(黛博拉?科尔)写道:“杰拉尔?德帕迪约(Gerard Depardieu)在《爱之谷》中的形象便是“大汗淋漓、气喘吁吁地打着赤膊”, 华金?菲尼克斯 (Joaquin Phoenix)在 伍迪?艾伦(Woody Allen)的新片《非理性的人》(Irrational Man)中也露出了他那胖胖的肚子。科林?法瑞尔(Colin Farrell)出席《龙虾》(The Lobster)的首映红毯时,看起来如往常一般衣冠楚楚,然而在剧中他却大腹便便。为了给荒诞主义者欧格斯?兰斯莫斯(Yorgos Lanthimos)的黑色喜剧中的孤独主角增肥,法瑞尔大量进食高热量食品,其中包括融化了的冰淇淋。他告诉《好莱坞报道》(Hollywood Reporter),“在早晨10点享用2个芝士汉堡、薯条和可乐可不那么有趣,”他补充道,“不过我喜欢芝士汉堡。”
单词spontaneous 联想记忆:
以下将007系列电影官方主题曲按受欢迎程度由低到高进行排序。其中还荣誉推荐了两首有可能不属于官方歌曲的曲子。它们一样很好听。
5. Broadcaster
节目36 歌曲《中国范儿》,玖月奇迹
吉尔伯特表示,对可穿戴设备的不断试验十分重要,但是现在短期内,人们还需要探讨一下:“技术的演进以及企业的研发力量共同推动了现有可穿戴产品的发展,但它们是否真的能够满足用户的需求;各公司又是否需要探索不同的合作模式,让可穿戴设备不仅限于早期使用者的圈子,而是被主流人群所接受”。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • As we get closer to relegating 2014 to the history books, your local stock market guru most likely couldn’t be happier to see those books slammed shut.
  • 三类家具成投诉焦点 家具说明书成业内传说
  • The Warriors played pre-season games in China in 2013 against the Los Angeles Lakers, but it will be the first time the Timberwolves visit China.
    Meme-sharing Facebook groups have become a new college tradition, Mic reported last week, with students across the country trading inside jokes and fighting battles with rival universities via screenshot and caption.
  • 北京积分落户指标初核结果今起可查
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • Despite the confusion, executive producer Ed Razek has commended the Chinese partners as “wonderful and enthusiastic hosts.”
    测试
  • 我们第一次看到安娜·莫拉莱斯(Anna Morales,杰西卡·查斯坦[Jessica Chastain]饰)的头发是在《至暴之年》(A Most Violent Year)的片头字幕里。她正对着镜子化妆。
    [freim]
  • For as long as the show has been running — ever since its debut in 2007 — we have been, it seems, suffering from what Hadley Freeman in The Guardian newspaper dubbed “madmenalaria.”
    Microsoft Corp., Toyota Motor Corp., IBM Corp., Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd., Amazon.com Inc., Mercedes-Benz and General Electric Co. were also on the Top 10 list, according to Interbrand's 2016 Best Global Brands report.
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    Russian President Vladimir Putin took a 10% pay cut last year, as his country sank into a deep recession. But that was after his salary more than doubled in April 2014, to roughly 9.7 million rubles.
    'In the meantime, the U.S. continues to grow its own domestic production both in oil and gas. I think, for us, it's less about where the actual price is going--it's more about how much more growth is left in North American oil sands, shale gas, shale oil,' as well as shale exploration elsewhere, he said.
  • 可穿戴设备通常分为三大类:像健身追踪器这样的复杂设备;像智能手表这样的智能配件(由于它们可以运行第三方应用);还有像谷歌眼镜这样完全自主、可以直接联网的智能可穿戴设备。
    The Harvard article suggests that protecting the brain with a heart-healthy diet could be the key to warding off dementia and keeping your memory intact well into your golden years. Some studies have suggested certain foods have a positive impact on memory, but no study thus far has revealed the existence of a miracle food. The idea that a heart-healthy diet could also prove beneficial to the brain and memory has become popular with doctors studying Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Some of the risk factors associated with heart disease are similar to those associated with dementia and Alzheimer's. Foods recommended for a heart-healthy diet include fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain bread, as well as beans, nuts, and olive oil. If you can't use every one of these 10 scientific secrets to a perfect memory, a healthy diet might help you avoid losing it!
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 二手房买家年轻化已成趋势 80后90后占比近六成 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

中国建材行业一周大事记(8.31-9.6)

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

盘锦禹王化纤有限公司企划总监孙雪钊:电商平台要细分市场

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

多地租赁新政密集下发 中国房地产市场迎来租赁时代

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

中国楼市下行压力难减 房地产“黄金时代”现拐点

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • But that kind of emotional identification gets lost on the runway, and the retail floor. And then we are left with what?
  • 自从2008年智能手机应用商店开始运营以来,达洛伊西奥就着手设计iPhone手机应用软件。那时12岁的他住在伦敦的温布尔顿,用卧室里的Mac电脑来工作。因为年纪太小,他在填写苹果(Apple)开发执照申请时用的都是他爸爸的名字。这之前他没在学校受过正式的电脑培训,他的父母(一个是律师,一个是商界管理人士)也都不从事技术行业工作。他几乎是完全靠刷网页、看教程来自学编程的。
  • 房企拿地态度更趋谨慎

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • conduct
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • You see all kinds of grisly, hairy characters on the Tube but few commuters would've expected to see a pack of pandas on the platform.
    lettuce
    Washington's twin-obsessions in election year 2010 will be to create jobs and cut the deficit. Little will be accomplished on either count.
  • The United States ranks No. 7 overall. The country with the largest economy in the world is also considered the most powerful. It ranks No. 3 in Entrepreneurship and No. 3 in Cultural Influence, as well.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 1.世界杯赛期间的一整个月电视遥控器都由我控制。
  • LED固装屏市场增速向好 2021年市场规模将达157亿美元
  • 5.重播和比赛精彩集锦同主要现场比赛一样精彩,所以我也会看。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 卡位租赁市场:房地产市场“最后的红利”
  • Household substance abuse
  • 我国防水材料突破18亿平方米
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

已上市企业看似华丽实则危险 上市并非募资唯一渠道

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 北京通州立案处罚两个在售商品房项目
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 新房间里的老冤家:甲醛检测与治理的市场乱象
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

会。梅亚德是执政党革命制度党(PRI)的候选人。他主要的竞争对手是强硬的左翼领导人安德烈斯曼努埃尔洛佩斯奥夫拉多尔(Andrés Manuel López Obrador)——可以感召人群的激情演说家。梅亚德需要克服很多问题:在去年1月一夜间把油价上调20%、引发通胀飙升后,他必须说服选民自己仍然是可以信任的。他还必须证明自己是个有主见的人,而不仅仅是这届不受欢迎的政府的傀儡——在遏制猖獗的腐败和犯罪行为方面,这届政府极为失败。但是凭借强大的PRI拉票机器,他可能势不可挡。在墨西哥只有一轮选举的体制下,30%的选票可能就足以让他当选总统了。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

7-11 May
波尔图基本与波特酒同义,并同样具有悠久的历史。该城市的历史城区和葡萄酒产区上杜罗已被联合国教科文组织列入世界遗产名录。
杜邦自称“金鹰”,有着独特的,鹰隼般的外形。设计师们想塑造出那个外形,但又不想弄得跟杜邦本人一模一样。
凯瑟琳·毕格罗和编剧马克.波尔已经为了这部电影筹备了一段时间,影片讲述的是1967年发生在底特律的警方突袭行动,这次行动引发了美国历史上规模最大的一场民众暴动。出演该片的有凯特林.德弗、约翰.卡拉辛斯基、威尔.保尔特、约翰.波耶加以及杰克.莱诺。
com共同+plex重叠→全部重叠→复杂的
大小:6364平方英尺(约591平方米)
In the meantime, here’s a fun song that’s been written by one of my readers, Libby Russell that all football widows will identify with. Enjoy! Thank you for sharing, Libby. It’s brilliant!
The potential for conflict will force China and the US to redefine their roles in a shifting environment that neither is comfortable with. Tensions will be aggravated by anti-China sentiment during the American elections. Asian countries are in a position to delineate the boundaries of influence for these two powers but, given their varied interests, alliances will shift depending on individual concerns.
华盛顿暂时的“停战”能否持续?
One of the more unique games announced at Gamescom was Silent Hills, the latest sequel in Konami’s bestselling horror franchise (which has also spawned two films). The world of gaming and movies combine in this new game, which is being developed by Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain creator Hideo Kojima and Pacific Rim director Guillermo del Toro. The game will star The Walking Dead’s Norman Reedus.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

建材价格持续下跌 河南超八成建材企业收入下降

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • Wealthy Chinese bought at least seven overseas islands in 2014.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • To wish you special joy at the holidays and all year.祝你在节日和新的一年中享有无限的快乐。
  • 南京二手房上周成交量环比上涨9.16%
  • 排名:第五
  • 北京:外地楼盘销售纳入监管 网络经纪机构须备案
  • EMPIRE (Fox, Wednesday) The filmmaker Lee Daniels (“Precious,” “Lee Daniels’ The Butler”) is behind this new hip-hop soap opera starring Terrence Howard as a rap mogul with a terminal disease.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 俄罗斯建材、陶瓷等行业市场需求大
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • 拉娜福鲁哈尔(Rana Foroohar)
  • 最近的例子也比比皆是,从乌戈.查韦斯(Hugo Chávez)到欧尔班.维克托(Viktor Orban)和弗拉基米尔.普京(Vladimir Putin)。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

2013年建材和化工行业加速融合

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